Camera lenses are made up of not just one single lens but many different lens ‘elements’, sometimes cemented or fixed together in ‘groups’. A comparatively simple prime (non zoom) lens may have 6-7 elements while a complex zoom lens might have 17 or more. The different lens elements are needed to compensate for a variety […]
This is the name of the lens mount used by Sony mirrorless cameras. Regular E-mount lenses fit its APS-C format cameras, like the Sony A6500, while FE lenses fit its full-frame mirrorless cameras, including the A7 series and Sony A9. Sony also makes A-mount lenses for its Alpha SLT cameras, but these are not the […]
A system introduced by Nikon for some of its lenses where the lens aperture diaphragm in the lens is controlled electromagnetically rather than by the traditional mechanical linking. This gives more accurate and consistent exposures, especially during continuous shooting, where the lens diaphragm may be adjusted many times a second.
A term used to describe a film’s tolerance to overexposure and underexposure and its ability to capture tones in the brightest and darkest parts of a scene, even in high-contrast lighting. The modern-day equivalent with digital sensors is dynamic range, though sensors rarely approach the dynamic range (exposure latitude) of film.
A brand of memory card that includes Wi-Fi capability so that you can transfer photos wirelessly to a smartphone, tablet or computer. More and more cameras are coming out with Wi-Fi built in now, though, so these provide the same functionality as Eye-Fi cards.
Used to adjust the camera’s automatic exposure setting to make the picture come out lighter or darker. Camera meters aren’t foolproof and sometimes you do need to make adjustments. Doing it this way is quicker than swapping to full manual control.
A tiny blind in the viewfinder eyepiece that stops light entering and upsetting the exposure (normally the eyepiece is covered by your eye). It can be useful for long exposures or other shots where you’ve stepped away from the camera. Some cameras come with a small viewfinder cap fixed to the shoulder strap.
A flashgun designed to clip to the top of the camera on its accessory shoe or to be used off-camera and fired remotely by cable, radio control or infra-red. External flashguns have more power than the camera’s built-in flash and a lot more flexibility in the way you can control and direct the light.
Image-editing software can’t always do everything you need to an image, so most have the ability to use ‘external editors’ – they send the file to another program, where you make the changes you want to make, and then the edited version is sent back to your original software for any further work. This is […]
Where regular image-editing tools use ‘plug ins’ for additional effects and options, the Apple Photos app uses ‘extensions’. These are relatively few in number at the moment, but the number is growing.
A type of sensor used by Fuji in its smaller compact cameras with special modes for increased sensitivity or increased dynamic range. Confusingly, ‘EXR’ is also the brand name given to the image processing system used across the Fuji camera range.
Digital cameras offer finer exposure adjustments than whole stops (EV) values. By default, they offer 1/3EV adjustments to the shutter speed, lens aperture and ISO setting – though some cameras offer 1/2EV adjustments as an alternative, in line with older film cameras.
Some cameras can simulate the effect of exposure adjustments on the LCD screen or electronic viewfinder (this is not possible with an optical viewfinder), making the image lighter or darker as you adjust the exposure. It’s not a precise guide to exposure but it can be useful.
This controls the camera’s operation, from fully-automatic (the camera controls everything), semi-automatic (you can choose the shutter speed or lens aperture) to manual (you choose all the settings).
Exposure recreates the look of old films and processes. It works both as a plug in and as a standalone application, and in this version it adds browsing tools and non-destructive editing. Adjustments are stored alongside photos rather than being applied directly.
A numerical value given to the amount of light in a scene. For example, bright sunlight might produce an EV of 17. In practice, cameras deal only in shutter speeds and lens apertures and you’re only likely to see EV values on handheld light meters.
Taking a series of shots at different exposure settings in quick succession so that you can choose the best later or combine them in an HDR (high dynamic range) image. See also: Top 12 HDR tips
Exposure is the science (and the art) of making sure the sensor gets exactly the right quantity of light to produce a good image. Exposure is adjusted using shutter speed (the length of the exposure), lens aperture (how much light is passed through) and ISO (the sensitivity setting of the camera). Camera’s have light meters […]
More and more photo editing applications now work non-destructively, so that the editing changes you make are stored alongside the image in a metadata file or within the software’s image browser, and are not applied directly to the image. To produce a photo with your changes ‘baked in’, you have to export a finished version […]
Nikon’s own brand name for the image processors used in its digital cameras. More powerful processors are needed for higher-resolution sensors and faster continuous shooting speeds, and play a part in noise reduction at high ISOs and image quality generally.