The video equivalent of the image-enhancement stills photographers carry out on their images. Videographers ‘grade’ video to match the colours and exposures between clips, to create a certain ‘look’ or to edit video shot in a ‘log’ mode for extra dynamic range.
Also known as battery grips, these are accessories that attach to the bottom of some DSLRs or mirrorless cameras to offer extended battery life and, usually, a duplicate set of controls to make the camera suitable for extended use in portrait (vertical) mode. In some cases, a battery grip may also increase the continuous shooting […]
An advanced kind of electronic shutter that can capture the entire image area at once, instead of scanning it strip by strip. This should eliminate the rolling shutter effect usually associated with electronic shutters and make them much more effective for capturing moving subjects. It does, however, require advanced sensor technology, especially in larger sensor […]
Camera lenses used complex configurations of different optical elements, often cemented or fixed together in ‘groups’. Lens groups may be designed to counteract common optical aberrations and you may have autofocus ‘groups’ and zoom groups. Lens elements and groups often move relative to each other in complex ways as the focus and zoom settings are […]
Gain is a term you’re likely to meet in video rather than stills photography. It basically means turning up the input signal strength to record a decent value. Videographers are more likely to talk about increasing the ISO setting rather than the ‘gain’, though it amounts to the same thing. It’s still used for audio […]
A mounting system first developed by GoPro but now used widely by other action camera and accessory makers. In theory, any GoPro mount compatible item should be compatible with any other.
A geared head is a special type of tripod head designed for very fine adjustments applied with handles or knobs that move the head via fine gears.
A geared column is a tripod centre column where the height can be adjusted by a flip-out handle – you turn the handle to wind the column up and down.
An old chemical printing process which uses gum and chemical bichromates to produce prints from negatives. It produces images with a particular visual appearance and can be replicated, after a fashion, using software. ON1 Photo RAW has a Gum Bichromate effect preset, for example.
A measure of the power of a flashgun, whether it’s a built in flash or an external flashgun. You take the guide number and divide it by the subject distance in metres to get the lens aperture you should use. Flash power is usually controlled automatically these days, though, so the guide number is just […]
Used for accurate white balance calibration, usually under artificial lighting where the colour of the light sources is unknown or variable. You can use the camera’s manual white balance preset control to take reading from the grey card, or set the white balance using the card and the WB eyedropper tool in many image-editing programs.
Film grain is caused by the random clumping of silver halide grains (black and white) or dye clouds (colour film) – the individual grains or colour spots are too small to see. Film grain looks very different to digital noise – many photographers use film grain simulation filters and tools.
Graduated filters are clear at the bottom but darkened at the top, with a smooth, graduated blend in between. You use them in landscape photography to tone down bright skies without affecting the land. You can also create graduated filters ‘digitally’ in image-editing software.
An image mask that transitions from clear to opaque gradually using a soft gradient. It could be used to darken a bright sky in a landscape shot, for example, without producing a hard edge where the adjustment takes effect.
A type of adjustment layer that translates the different brightness levels in a photo on to points on a gradient. It’s an effect you wouldn’t necessarily use that often, though you can effectively convert a colour image to black and white using a black-white gradient map, for example.
GPS receivers use global positioning satellites to fix the camera’s location and embed this in the photo’s metadata. You can look this up later and many programs can show the location the photo was taken on a map. Only a few cameras have GPS built in, but it’s standard on smartphones.
One of the best known brands of action camera. GoPro has made its name through the activities of high-profile adventure sports personalities and even TV production companies. The cameras are small, square and tough and at the centre of a large range of camera mounts, supports, gimbals and other accessories.
A free photo storage and sharing tool that’s part of your Google account. You can store, sort and search all your photos online and they’re automatically available in your smart devices too, via a Google Photos app. It’s not designed for professional use, but it does use machine learning, or artificial intelligence, to identify your […]
A suite of software plug-ins for Photoshop and Lightroom now distributed by DxO and consisting of programs previously made and sold by Nik Software. The collection includes Analog Efex Pro, Color Efex Pro, Dfine, HDR Efex Pro, Sharpener Pro Silver Efex Pro and Viveza.
Online cloud storage system offered by Google as part of its Gmail, Google Photos, Google Docs system and more. You get a small amount of Google Drive storage with your free account, but you will need to pay a subscription for more storage space. It’s an alternative to Dropbox.