The traditional form of camera shutter, a physical device which blocks light from the sensor until the moment you press the shutter release, then opens to expose the sensor for the required amount of time before it closes again. Mechanical shutters are either focal plane types, just in front of the sensor, or in-lens ‘leaf’ […]
This is a sensor and lens format used by Olympus and Panasonic for their mirrorless camera ranges. The MFT sensor measures 17.3 x 13.0mm, so it’s smaller than the APS-C sensors used in rival mirrorless cameras. This does have a modest effect on overall image quality, but the payback is the both MFT cameras and […]
A lighting modifier is designed to change the character of the light from a flashgun, or some other source of artificial lighting. Mostly they soften or diffuse the light, or change its direction.
A continuous light built into many professional flashguns so that you can see the effect of the light ahead of taking the picture. Without a modelling lamp, you won’t really be able to gauge the effect of the lighting without taking a shot and looking at the result.
Many photo-editing programs let you adjust the hue and saturation of individual colours, but DxO Optics Pro goes a little further by allowing you to add a number of different colour adjustments to different areas of an image – hence ‘multi-point’ colour balance.
Taking two shots on a single frame. In the days of film this meant locking the film advance when cocking the shutter and taking another picture on a frame of film that’s already been exposed. On a digital camera, the camera stores the first image in its memory and then merges it with the second.
This is the most sophisticated form of light metering used by cameras. The light values are measured at many points across the frame and compared to ‘known’ scenes so that the camera can work out what the subject is likely to be and the best way to expose it properly.
MP4 is a video file format used by many digital cameras. It’s simple to work with because it produces a single file containing both the video and audio and it’s simple to drag from one device to another. It’s often provided as a similar alternative to AVCHD on Sony and Panasonic cameras.
A lens mount adaptor which lets you mount a lens designed for one camera or brand on a different make or type of camera. For example, you can get adaptors for fitting DSLR lenses on some mirrorless cameras. Mount adaptors (lens adaptors) are used widely in videography.
It’s possible to simulate the appearance of moonlight quite effectively using a daytime sunlit shot, darkening it, reducing the saturation and shifting the white balance towards to blue end of the spectrum. A graduated filter is often useful for darkening the sky.
Two or more images combined, usually using layers in a program like Photoshop or Affinity Photo.
One-legged camera support that lacks the stability of a tripod (obviously) but offers invaluable support when using long, heavy telephoto lenses, and very popular amongst sports photographers for that reason.
Monitors rarely display colours with complete accuracy, so some professionals use calibration kits that use a sensor to read the monitor’s colours and then apply a software profile to correct the display.
A fine interference pattern sometimes visible when you photograph fine patterns. It happens when these clash with the rectangular grid of pixels on the camera sensor. Actually, you almost never see it – most cameras have anti-aliasing/low pass filters to prevent, and it doesn’t seem to be an issue for those that don’t.
Just about all digital cameras have these or an equivalent and you use it to set the exposure mode, such as full auto, program auto exposure, scene modes, movie mode and so on. More advanced cameras add PASM modes – Program AE, Aperture-priority, Shutter-priority and Manual.
It’s possible to simulate this digitally using a combination of exposure and glow effects. The Nik Color Efex Pro plug in offers a graduated mist filter that increases the mist effect towards the top of the photo and more distant objects.
An option on more advanced DSLRs that flips the mirror up in advance of the exposure in order to give any vibrations from the mirror mechanism time to die down. It’s popular with fans of macro photography and some landscape photographers.
A relatively recent design that takes interchangeable lenses, just like a DSLR, but doesn’t use in internal mirror for its viewing system –if you take off the lens you see the sensor itself. Mirrorless cameras allow a shorter lens-to-sensor distance and full time live view.
Special effect provided in some cameras and image-editing programs which makes real-world scenes look like miniature models. It does this by blurring the top and bottom of the image to simulate the shallow depth of field of a close-up shot.
Very broadly, the middle brightness tones in a photo. Imagine the full range of tones in an image split into four equal parts – the darkest quarter makes up the ‘shadows’, the lightest quarter makes up the ‘highlights’ and in between are the ‘midtones’.