360 video

This is fully immersive video that’s been shot with a 360-degree video camera. The video footage extends in a full circle around the camera position, which is usually stationary but could also be mounted on a skydiver’s helmet, for example. There are two ways of working with and watching 360-degree video. One is to use the video as raw material for creating a regular rectangular video, but with the freedom to pan around through a full 360 degrees during the editing process as you choose your viewpoint or create your own ‘panning’ shots. Another is to distribute the 360 video as-is using a suitable display system so that viewers can explore the scene on their own, choosing which direction they want to look in.

Gain control

Gain is a term you’re likely to meet in video rather than stills photography. It basically means turning up the input signal strength to record a decent value. Videographers are more likely to talk about increasing the ISO setting rather than the ‘gain’, though it amounts to the same thing. It’s still used for audio recording, where your camera or sound recorder will probably have a ‘gain control’ or some kind of ‘AGC’ – automatic gain control.

Run and gun (video)

A style of videography where you’re not shooting from a static position, but following the action on foot as you film. You’d typically use it for action sequences. It takes a good deal of skill and it’s best used for deliberate effect, not simply to make up for any lack of planning or direction!

Lyre (Rycote)

A flexible microphone mount specially designed to absorb vibration and shocks to improve the quality of sound recordings when the mic is mounted on a camera’s accessory shoe, for example, or a portable video rig. Sometimes they come as standard with microphones but you can also get them separately.

Zebra pattern

A visual warning that image highlights are being overexposed and used especially during video recording. The overbright areas are marked by moving diagonal stripes (hence zebra) leaving you to decide whether to reduce the exposure or to leave it if the highlight areas are unimportant.

UHD video

This is what most people are referring to when they talk about ‘4K’ video. UHD video has a frame size of 3,840 x 2,160 pixels, so it’s slightly less than 4,000 pixels wide, but it does have a true 16:9 aspect ratio, so the picture proportions are the same as standard HD and full HD video.


A filming technique where frames shot at intervals are combined to make a video. For example, if you shot 300 frames at 1-second intervals and turned them into a movie running at 30fps, then five minutes of real time would be compressed into a 10-second movie.