Post-crop or pre-crop vignette

Normally, if you apply a vignette effect to a photo and then crop the photo you will crop off some of that vignette effect at the edges, too. However, Lightroom’s ‘post-crop’ vignette will re-apply the vignette settings after the image is cropped so that you don’t lose the effect. MacPhun’s Luminar has a Vignette filter which offers both modes – pre-crop and post-crop vignette.

Picture Control/Style

Cameras usually offer a range of picture ‘styles’ such as ‘Standard’, for neutral results, ‘Vivid’ for richer colours, ‘Portrait’ for gentler tones and more. These are applied to JPEG images saved by the camera. If you shoot RAW files you can choose the picture style later on.

Old Photo (Color Efex Pro)

A filter in Color Efex Pro which offers a varity of vintage photo effects, from sepia-tinted black and white to faded colour. In some ways it’s been superseded by newer and more elaborate ‘analog’ film effects, but it still produces a range of attractive vintage photo effects.

Noir

A style of photography designed to reflect the dramatic, low-key lighting of Hollywood noir films. It can be achieved with lighting or, increasingly, with digital image effects which convert images to black and white, exaggerate contrast and often add grain and a vignette.

Multiple exposure

Taking two shots on a single frame. In the days of film this meant locking the film advance when cocking the shutter and taking another picture on a frame of film that’s already been exposed. On a digital camera, the camera stores the first image in its memory and then merges it with the second.

Moonlight effect

It’s possible to simulate the appearance of moonlight quite effectively using a daytime sunlit shot, darkening it, reducing the saturation and shifting the white balance towards to blue end of the spectrum. A graduated filter is often useful for darkening the sky.

Mist effect

It’s possible to simulate this digitally using a combination of exposure and glow effects. The Nik Color Efex Pro plug in offers a graduated mist filter that increases the mist effect towards the top of the photo and more distant objects.

Miniature effect

Special effect provided in some cameras and image-editing programs which makes real-world scenes look like miniature models. It does this by blurring the top and bottom of the image to simulate the shallow depth of field of a close-up shot.

Midnight filter

A filter in Color Efex Pro that takes a regular daytime shot and simulates the look of moonlight using a combination of darkening, colour shifts, desaturation and glow effects.

Low key

A photo where most of the tones are dark, such as a black cat in a coal cellar. You can also give photos a low key look with slight underexposure. It gives photos a dramatic, moody look, though the subject matter has to be right for this to work properly.

Localised contrast

A relatively new type of image adjustment that splits a photo up into different areas, depending on its properties, and applies an optimum contrast adjustment to each. It’s used for a variety of ‘dehaze’ and similar tools. It’s also used as a kind of super-coarse sharpening which doesn’t make the edges of objects crisper in the normal way, but works over a much wider radius to give images more visual ‘punch’ from normal viewing distances.