The names used by Nikon and Canon respectively for their camera flash units, both built-in pop-up flash and external flashguns. There’s nothing intrinsically different about these compared to regular flashguns – it’s just a different choice of name.
Flash isn't just emergency lighting for parties and indoor scenes. In fact, the sensitivity of digital camera sensors today means you rarely need it for that reason alone. Instead, flash is now used for creative lighting effects, often off-camera, placed elsewhere in the scene and operated remotely. Here are some articles about flash, its technologies and what to look for. Photo by Jonathan Borba on Unsplash
Special flash mode where the camera’s exposure is extended beyond the brief burst of the flash. This makes it possible to record some of the ambient lighting too, and it’s a popular technique for illuminating a nearby subject brightly without losing background colour and detail.
A special slow sync flash mode which fires the flash at the end of the exposure not the start. This gives more natural-looking results with moving subjects because any movement trail will be behind your subject and not ahead of it (which looks odd).
Most cameras have a built-in flashgun which pops up automatically in low light or can be popped up by pressing a button. The flash can provide emergency light, but it’s harsh and short range. In many instances it’s best to leave the flash off and use higher ISO settings.
Accessory shoe on the top of more advanced cameras that’s designed for sliding in an external flashgun, though these days it may also be used for electronic viewfinders, wireless remote control units and more.