A style of photography designed to reflect the dramatic, low-key lighting of Hollywood noir films. It can be achieved with lighting or, increasingly, with digital image effects which convert images to black and white, exaggerate contrast and often add grain and a vignette.
Taking two shots on a single frame. In the days of film this meant locking the film advance when cocking the shutter and taking another picture on a frame of film that’s already been exposed. On a digital camera, the camera stores the first image in its memory and then merges it with the second.
It’s possible to simulate the appearance of moonlight quite effectively using a daytime sunlit shot, darkening it, reducing the saturation and shifting the white balance towards to blue end of the spectrum. A graduated filter is often useful for darkening the sky.
Two or more images combined, usually using layers in a program like Photoshop or Affinity Photo.
It’s possible to simulate this digitally using a combination of exposure and glow effects. The Nik Color Efex Pro plug in offers a graduated mist filter that increases the mist effect towards the top of the photo and more distant objects.
Special effect provided in some cameras and image-editing programs which makes real-world scenes look like miniature models. It does this by blurring the top and bottom of the image to simulate the shallow depth of field of a close-up shot.
Strictly speaking, macro photography where a real-life object is captured at the same size on the sensor. So a bee 10mm long would form an image 10mm long on the sensor. True macro photography needs dedicated ‘macro’ lenses.
A photo where most of the tones are dark, such as a black cat in a coal cellar. You can also give photos a low key look with slight underexposure. It gives photos a dramatic, moody look, though the subject matter has to be right for this to work properly.
Long exposures turn moving subjects like water and clouds into an atmospheric blur. The exposure time often needs to be several seconds or longer, so a tripod is essential. In bright light you’ll need a neutral density (ND) filter to get these long exposures.
A branch of photography that uses parts of the light spectrum not normally visible to the naked eye but which can still be captured on film or digitally using black and white or colour film made sensitive to infra red or a digital camera modified to remove the infra red filter that normally covers the […]
A photo where the tones are predominantly bright or white. It’s partly the subject that makes a photographer high key – a white cat on a white cushion, for example, and partly the exposure technique – slight overexposure will give a high key look.
HDR stands for high dynamic range photography. It combines a series of frames taken at different exposures to capture a much wider dynamic (brightness) range than the camera could capture with a single exposure. These exposures are merged using HDR software.
Any photography – obviously – where you’re holding the camera with your hands rather than using a tripod or some other form of camera support. It has special implications for night and low light photography where it’s important to use shutter speeds fast enough to prevent camera shake.
In photography, this is the hour after sunrise or the hour before sunset, where the sun is low in the sky and casts an attractive, warm light that makes landscapes look more appealing. Sometimes it’s possible to replicate this effect in software – MacPhun Luminar has a ‘Golden Hour’ filter.
A hardware and software technique for getting more depth of field in close-up and macro shots. You take a series of images at slightly different focus settings, then use focus stacking software to blend together the sharpest areas of each into a single image.
Taking a series of shots at different exposure settings in quick succession so that you can choose the best later or combine them in an HDR (high dynamic range) image. See also: Top 12 HDR tips
Classic black and white technique where certain areas of a print are held back (dodged) under the enlarger to make them lighter and others are given extra exposure (burning in) to make them darker. The terms are still used to describe the way images can be improved digitally.
Where an object in a photo is cut out from its surroundings using a selection or a mask so that it can be added to another image or placed against a plain (usually white) background.
This is a pretty vague term that describes any photography at closer than normal distances. Most camera lenses can shoot close-ups, but if you want to get closer still for true life-size ‘macro’ photography, which does have a proper definition, then you will need a dedicated macro lens.
Taking the same shot at a series of different exposures with the intention of choosing the best one later or merging them together to create an HDR image. Most cameras offer an auto exposure bracketing option. You choose the bracketing interval (the difference between the exposures, typically 1EV) and the number of frames (usually 3, […]