The video equivalent of the image-enhancement stills photographers carry out on their images. Videographers ‘grade’ video to match the colours and exposures between clips, to create a certain ‘look’ or to edit video shot in a ‘log’ mode for extra dynamic range.
Almost all digital cameras can now shoot video as well as stills, and as well as its leisure applications, video is also increasingly important to professional photographers as clients frequently want movies as well as still images. The key specifications are the resolution (standard HD, full HD or 4K) and the frame rates (30fps, 25fps or 24fps). Some cameras offer faster frame rates for slow motion effects. High-end cameras offer 6K or, soon, 8K resolution and it's also possible to get 360-degree video cameras no larger than GoPro style action cams.
Extended dynamic range movie mode introduced by Fujifilm to handle high-contrast lighting, extending dynamic range by 200% or 400%. Other higher-end movie cameras have a similar feature. It produces flat-looking footage but with extended data in the shadow and highlight areas and the idea is that you process the video later on a computer (grading) to achieve the finished look. It’s the video maker’s equivalent of shooting RAW files.
This is fully immersive video that’s been shot with a 360-degree video camera. The video footage extends in a full circle around the camera position, which is usually stationary but could also be mounted on a skydiver’s helmet, for example. There are two ways of working with and watching 360-degree video. One is to use the video as raw material for creating a regular rectangular video, but with the freedom to pan around through a full 360 degrees during the editing process as you choose your viewpoint or create your own ‘panning’ shots. Another is to distribute the 360 video as-is using a suitable display system so that viewers can explore the scene on their own, choosing which direction they want to look in.
Gain is a term you’re likely to meet in video rather than stills photography. It basically means turning up the input signal strength to record a decent value. Videographers are more likely to talk about increasing the ISO setting rather than the ‘gain’, though it amounts to the same thing. It’s still used for audio recording, where your camera or sound recorder will probably have a ‘gain control’ or some kind of ‘AGC’ – automatic gain control.