This is a small microphone designed to attach to a speaker’s clothing for interviews or presentations, for example. They’re usually small and unobtrusive, they’re hands-free and they help exclude other background noises. They may also be called lapel mics. Some are connected to the camera or sound recorder by wire, others work wirelessly.
Almost all digital cameras can now shoot video as well as stills, and as well as its leisure applications, video is also increasingly important to professional photographers as clients frequently want movies as well as still images. The key specifications are the resolution (standard HD, full HD or 4K) and the frame rates (30fps, 25fps or 24fps). Some cameras offer faster frame rates for slow motion effects. High-end cameras offer 6K or, soon, 8K resolution and it's also possible to get 360-degree video cameras no larger than GoPro style action cams.
A shotgun mic is a highly directional microphone usually used to capture audio from a subject a little way from the camera. They’re popular for on-camera use when it’s not possible to place a microphone on or near your subject. Shotgun mics are ‘unidirectional’, which means they capture sound from one direction only over quite a narrow angle. This makes them more effective at excluding unwanted background noise.
A style of videography where you’re not shooting from a static position, but following the action on foot as you film. You’d typically use it for action sequences. It takes a good deal of skill and it’s best used for deliberate effect, not simply to make up for any lack of planning or direction!
A flexible microphone mount specially designed to absorb vibration and shocks to improve the quality of sound recordings when the mic is mounted on a camera’s accessory shoe, for example, or a portable video rig. Sometimes they come as standard with microphones but you can also get them separately.